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Hip-hop culture helped to market the Escalade and Navigator by featuring them in music videos, and the two oversized brute-utes came to symbolize the bling lifestyle with an under-25 generation that could only dream of owning one. Incredibly, Cadillac, and to a lesser extent, Lincoln, became aspirational. Smiles all around for Detroit and Dearborn.
Then Detroit and Dearborn let their cash cows age like so much sushi sitting in the sun, stuck in their traditional “if it ain’t broke don’t fix it” mentality. Then gas prices skyrocketed. Then Al Gore got on the big screen to start educating the masses about the perils of global warming. By the start of the summer of 2006, driving an Escalade or Navigator was about as jiggy as downloading “Blingtones” for your cell phone or listening to a Will Smith CD, and the profit margins were drying up. Frowns all around for Detroit and Dearborn.
Cadillac thinks a complete redesign of the Escalade for 2007 can restore the SUV’s luster, but in a world gone hella mad for crossover suvs, this might be tougher than GM’s marketing gurus think. The new 2007 Cadillac Escalade adheres closely to the recipe that made it a hit, based on the same platform as the redesigned Chevrolet Tahoe and GMC Yukon. That means it’s got truck-tough underpinnings, even though it’s used mainly for commuting from the suburbs to the city. That also means that many of the same upgrades found in the Escalade, like a much stiffer boxed frame, rack-and-pinion steering, and four-wheel-disc brakes, can be had on the Chevy or Jimmy.
Cadillac buyers do, however, get an exclusive engine. Fortified with a 6.2-liter, all-aluminum V8 with variable valve timing, the Escalade delivers 403 horsepower and 417 lb.-ft. of torque to the rear or all four wheels. Unfortunately, this V8 doesn’t come with Active Fuel Management like the standard engine in the Tahoe and Yukon, so the EPA rates fuel economy at 13 mpg in the city and 19 mpg on the highway. As usual, our real-world number was south of the EPA’s city rating at 11.9 mpg. Other exclusives to the Escalade include a six-speed automatic transmission with manual shifting and a tow/haul feature, and a road-sensing front suspension with real-time damping. Cadillac buyers can also upgrade from the stock 18-inch alloys to massive, chrome-coated 22-inch wheels wearing 285/45 Bridgestone Dueler tires.
Of course, the Cadillac Escalade comes with far more standard equipment than the baseline Tahoe and Yukon, including the usual luxury amenities like leather, wood, brushed aluminum, and premium-grade materials. However, key features like a tilt-and-telescopic steering wheel, as well as one-touch operation for all four windows, are conspicuously absent. On-board entertainment is courtesy of a Bose 5.1 surround sound system, and Cadillac provides heated washer fluid, heated side mirrors, and heated rear seats for cold-weather climates. Other goodies include rain-sensing wipers, a power tailgate, and a rear parking assist system.
On the safety front, front and front-side airbags come standard, along with side-curtain airbags that include a rollover protection feature that allows them to remain inflated for an extended period of time. The stability control system also works to combat rollover accidents with mitigation technology that recognizes conditions when the Escalade could tip and applies appropriate braking to help keep the truck from going toes up. Other safety features include what Cadillac calls a 360-degree seatbelt pretensioner system, and a free 12-month subscription to OnStar telematics which is also available with a new Turn-by-Turn navigation feature.
Extra-cost options can quickly drive the Escalade’s $54,725 base price (including an $875 destination charge) higher. Key among them is a Climate Package with heated and cooled front and rear seats as well as a heated steering wheel; an Information Package with a touch-screen navigation system, a reversing camera, and adaptive headlights; power fold-and-tumble second-row seats; a rear seat DVD entertainment center; and an oversized power sunroof. Our test truck had all of them: the $2,995 22-inch wheels, the $2,495 Information Package, the $1,295 rear DVD entertainment system, the $995 power sunroof, the $625 Climate Package, and the $425 power second-row fold-and-tumble seats. The sticker price for our sample Escalade with all-wheel-drive was $66,110.
Cadillac says the new Escalade’s design emulates the Sixteen Concept car from a couple of years ago, especially in the grille. We would agree, and sneak peeks of the upcoming Cadillac CTS redesign prove that this is the direction GM’s luxury brand is headed. But for the Escalade, which is intentionally flashy, the grille is upstaged by chrome – and lots of it. Inside, Cadillac focused on delivering premium interior materials and an instrument panel design that shared little with lower-priced Chevys and GMCs.
We drove our black Escalade all around the Los Angeles area, including a valet test at The Stinking Rose restaurant in trendy west L.A. Though the Escalade didn’t get front-lined, most of the diners clogging the portico glanced the Cadillac’s way. Maybe they’d already heard that the new Escalade is a substantial improvement over the old model, featuring greater comfort, outstanding interior materials, and a tight, controlled ride and handling mix that has been heretofore missing from a huge SUV like this one. The question remains, however: Can Cadillac transcend the short shelf life of a pop culture icon, or is the party over?
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The difference between this new 2007 Cadillac Escalade and the old one is like night and day, taking it from a re-hashed Chevy Tahoe into the realm of Land Rovers and Lexuses. The 403-horsepower, 6.2-liter V8 is powerful, loves to rev, and sounds terrific. In fact, the exhaust note mimics the resonant rumble of an aftermarket system right out of the box. The six-speed automatic transmission shifts smoothly when cruising and quickly when dipping into the impressive well of power. The brake pedal features excellent feel and modulation, the optional 22-inch wheels wearing 285/45 Bridgestone tires grip tenaciously, and body motions are well controlled for such a heavy, tall vehicle. Steering is too light at speed, but lots of assist is on tap to twist those huge tires in parking lots. Even the ride quality, despite the low-profile rubber and the truck-based suspension, is a huge improvement, if not quite up to the standards of the competition in this price range.
Still, for all its impressive traits, the Escalade is not fun to drive. It struggles to maintain speeds over 75 mph, it lumbers around turns despite the grip and roll control, it barely squeezes into parking garages and spaces, and it’s got no more off-roading capability than a ten-year-old Subaru Outback. Furthermore, it consumes fuel at the rate of one gallon of regular unleaded fuel for every 11.9 miles traveled. So on top of the steep purchase price and the sales tax you’ll pay, you can figure in a fuel bill of several hundred bucks a month, too.
Cadillac Escalade – James Fabin’s Driving Impressions:
I first saw the 2007 Cadillac Escalade at a star-studded unveiling up in Beverly Hills. Standing on Rodeo Drive, I got to talk to celebrities like Frankie Muniz, Wilmer Valderrama and Adrien Brody – all of whom were part of a focus group performed by Cadillac to ensure that this Escalade was even more successful than the last. For my test drive, there were no celebrities around but this time I had something I didn’t have before – the keys!
The first thing I noticed about the new Escalade is its striking appearance, which brings one word to mind…luxury. Getting into the driver’s seat is very easy, thanks to large door openings and a useful set of integrated running boards. Be careful, though, with that front door – the chrome trim forms a pointed dagger that is eager to put a ding in the cars parked next to you. Adjusting the mirrors and driver’s seat is easy, but the steering wheel only offers a tilt function – a vehicle in this class and price range should also have a telescoping function. The plastics and buttons used on the dash were all high quality and had an outstanding feel that reminded me of a European luxury car.
Taking to the road was a pleasure. While the Escalade is a full-size SUV, it feels smaller on the road. The steering is very light, making the Escalade easy to drive and park, though parking lot speeds require excessive turning of the steering wheel. The only time the Escalade’s size was really noticeable was while driving in reverse. To overcome this, the Escalade is equipped with a back-up camera and obstacle detection system that work great.
Enough talk about size and driving in reverse, let’s switch gears to moving forward. The Escalade’s engine does a great job propelling it to highway speeds, though it doesn’t feel as powerful as the numbers say it is. The automatic transmission shifts smoothly but wanted to downshift more often then I preferred. A manual mode is offered for the transmission, but I found it very awkward to use and more of a gimmick. Road noise was well controlled and acceptable – it would be easy to have a conversation with passengers in the back without yelling.
Cadillac Escalade – Ron Perry’s Driving Impressions:
You can’t help but want to turn the radio station to a rap channel, crank up the bass, slide down in the seat and assume the gangsta lean, drop the shades, and cruise with your cool on behind the wheel of the new Cadillac Escalade. That is the image with which society has christened the Escalade, and that’s a shame since it has so much to offer every demographic.
I found driving the Escalade to be a pleasure. You sit very high with an unobstructed view of the traffic and surroundings, but when dealing with difficult traffic this Caddy’s size does matter. However, the Escalade does offer lots of low-end torque that allows you to quickly hit openings in traffic. A pretty good view out the windows helps with navigation but there’s a large blind spot off the rear passenger quarter that is blocked by the third-row seatback and headrests. Thankfully the large side and rearview mirrors compensate nicely. The steering is too light at speed and feedback is minimal but comes in handy when piloting the Escalade at slow speeds through parking lots and traffic. Brakes are great and give superb feedback as you apply pressure.
The engine has lots of torque to propel the massive Escalade from a stop, but when stomping the go-pedal at speed you get more growl than bite. I love the exhaust note so much that I am afraid my gas mileage would suffer because of it. Tire noise is minimal but I did hear a surprising amount of wind noise around the windscreen. The highlight of the drivetrain has to be the smoothness of the transmission.
When it comes to handling, the Cadillac Escalade does better than most SUVs its size, but it does get top heavy and sets your body leaning in the opposite direction while trying to compensate in tight turns. The ride is smooth and luxurious over most surfaces but speed bumps transfer abrupt punishment to your senses.
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C’mon, seriously? The 2007 Cadillac Escalade, with an as-tested price of $66K and change, has a steering wheel that tilts but does not telescope? And the range of tilt is limited to detents rather than infinitely selectable? And it’s manual instead of power? Hey, GM, waaaaaaay back in 2000, the $12,500 Ford Focus ZX3 came standard with an infinitely variable tilt-and-telescopic steering wheel. And yeah, I know your argument is that the ‘Slade has power adjustable pedals that should alleviate the antiquated steering column, but I still couldn’t get comfortable. Thanks, though, for the heated steering wheel rim. Nice touch. Here’s another comfort issue, for me anyway. The upper door sill is thin and curves down into the upper door panel, making it a terrible place to rest an arm or even an elbow. True, the door panel armrest is wide and padded, but it’s mounted too low when I have the driver’s seat positioned the way I like it.
The Escalade’s seats are nice, upholstered in plush Nuance leather with a distinct scent that lingers on your clothing. Our test truck came with heated and cooled front and rear chairs that made everyone comfortable no matter the temperature. There’s lots of leg room up front, but for such a hulking truck, the rear quarters are cramped. The second-row seats are mounted a little low, and the third-row seat is mounted close to the floor forcing passengers to nosh on their own knees no matter how long or short the trip. Getting into and out of this truck is a hassle: running boards are a necessity, and the driver must use the steering wheel to hoist herself up and into the seat. Note that the outboard edge of the leather is gonna take a beating over time; even taller people must slide out and down off the left bolster. Power-operated (!) second-row buckets make entering the third-row about as effortless as possible, but there’s no way your crew will be able to exit the rearmost seats with any semblance of grace or elegance. Crank the ‘Slade up to 75 mph or more, and wind noise becomes a distinct irritant. At lower speeds, this is a quiet truck, enough so that you can hear all the rattles and squeaks emanating from various parts of the cabin.
Plan to use the Escalade for hauling cargo? You’ll like the power tailgate, which raises and lowers with the touch of a button on the remote. But if you’re in a hurry and impatient with the rear handle, the system gets confused and you wind up taking more time than less time by trying to manually operate it. Liftover is very high – waist-level on an average sized person – which means that heavy objects require more effort than if you were putting them in, say, a minivan or station wagon. Since there’s almost zero cargo room behind the third-row seats, you can flip them in half, tumble them forward, or yank them out – they don’t fold into the floor, and they’re heavy suckers. The second-row buckets fold and tumble, too, but are fixed to the floor. Once cargo space is expanded to the Escalade’s maximum of 108.9 cubic feet, it’s easy to see why there’s no center console between the second-row seats, though I don’t see why a front-hinged unit that also tumbles forward couldn’t be added for greater storage capacity. Need space for six once again? Have fun trying to raise those third-row seatbacks, which inexplicably come without straps to assist in the process.
Cadillac Escalade – James Fabin’s Opinion of Comfort:
When it comes to interior comfort, the Cadillac Escalade receives high marks in most areas. The driver’s and front passenger’s seats are large, comfortable and easy to adjust to each person’s preference. Second-row passengers are also treated to the same quality seats, plenty of leg room, their own environmental controls, and easy to access air vents. The third-row seating is designed for small adults or children and requires a very awkward crouch to gain access. Entry through the rear doors is also somewhat awkward for tall adults due to narrow lower door openings.
On the road, the Escalade has a very smooth feel and soaks up bumps very well. The ride can become a little choppy on extremely rough surfaces, showing the Escalade’s truck-based design, and pushing it into fast corners induces some body lean, but the vehicle never loses its stable feeling. Only when taken through emergency obstacle avoidance maneuvers or rapid lane changes does the Escalade truly show its size and weight, but the stability control system activates quickly to maintain control.
Cadillac Escalade – Ron Perry’s Opinion of Comfort:
Comfort is really what the Cadillac Escalade is all about, chock full as it is of creature comforts that heighten the driving experience and keep driver and passengers cozy and comfortable. Besides the usual multi-adjustable leather heated and ventilated seats, the dual-zone climate control, and the easy-to-use audio and navigation screen with tilt controls, the Escalade offers up so much more. Take the integrated side steps for instance, or the heated steering wheel. I also appreciated the ability to raise and lower the tailgate and tilt the second-row seats forward using controls from the driver’s seat and third-row seating area. Add to this an electric tailgate that opens with a gentle tug and closes with a push of a button from the outside – it can even be opened with the remote keyless fob. Don’t forget about side mirrors that fold with the touch of a button, standard park assist, and a third-row seat that actually has enough room for comfort. There are even power adjustable pedals for the short of stature, adjustable armrests for the reclining second-row bucket seats, and a DVD entertainment center to enjoy your favorite music videos on. About the only thing missing here is seat massage.
But the world inside the Cadillac Escalade is not all glitter and praise. There are a few overlooked items that should be addressed. There’s no power folding third-row, and because there’s virtually no storage behind the third-row owners will constantly be pushing them forward and raising them. That’s going to be an issue since the release levers are sticky and reaching in to pull them back up could mean soiling your clothes on the rear bumper. And, although the power assist buttons tilt the second-row seats forward, it doesn’t put them back down.
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Give kudos to Cadillac for ditching the Chevy-grade interior from the previous Escalade for the 2007’s lush environment. Soft touch surfaces dominate; even the sides of the center console between the seats dimple when you press on them. The Nuance leather is smooth, soft, and strongly scented. Wood and aluminum trim the dash, and the headliner is a padded woven fabric. Most controls are softly dampened, too, for more refined operation. Yeah, there are a few of those wafer-thin, hollow-sounding plastic panels in the Escalade, most notably the glove box door, but most of that cheap stuff is tucked away and hidden from sight.
Unfortunately, I can’t say that build quality is much better than it used to be. Sure, the gaps between panels are much tighter than before, but that just makes it easier to spot the problems. Inside, the passenger airbag cover didn’t fit flush with the upper dash pad, which inspires me to ask why this luxed-up truck doesn’t have a seamless passenger airbag in the first place. In our test sample, the only pillar trim that fit properly was for the passenger’s side windshield post, and on rough pavement the cabin filled with a cacophony of rattles. Lift the center console lid and wiggle it – how long do you think that’s gonna last before it snaps apart? The lower dash panel on the driver’s side was poorly fit, the plastic and vinyl seam on the base of the front passenger’s seat was splitting apart, the plastic inserts that hide screw heads behind all four door releases had sloppy seams, and with the navigation screen tilted inward to reduce glare it caved a bit when pressing on the lower left corner. This stuff might sound like small nits to pick, but when you’re playing in Lexus’s backyard, you’d better have some bite behind that bark.
Our test Escalade’s exterior wasn’t any better. Skipping over the minor variances in fit and finish that almost every car on the planet has, I noted a front bumper cover that was bowing out on both sides just forward of the wheel wells, like it had been forced into place to align with the fasteners that attach it to the truck. The tailgate was obviously tweaked to the right leaving a large gap on the left side, and the cover that fit over the trailer hitch was installed far off-center. Other issues were mainly limited to flushness of fit at the chrome window trim and inconsistent gap tolerances for the front doors.
Maybe I shouldn’t have been surprised that the “Built with Pride in Arlington, Texas” sticker on the driver’s door jamb was already peeling off.
Cadillac Escalade – James Fabin’s Opinion of Quality:
Cadillac knew it had high expectations to meet with the 2007 Escalade and it did a good job of meeting those expectations, but not in all areas. The buttons, switches and gauges are all high quality – many of which would not feel out of place in a European luxury sedan. The gauges are large and easy to see at night, but during the day the dark blue pointers on a black background get lost. The center dashboard section is made of quality parts, making it unfortunate that many of the most frequently accessed buttons and controls are located too low on the dash, with less frequently used features using valuable space up top.
Fit-and-finish wasn’t up to par with other luxury vehicles. During my test drive I noticed several squeaks and rattles coming from the roof-mounted DVD player and sunroof. There were also noticeably uneven gaps between some of the interior trim pieces. In addition, the front seatbelt mounts had exposed metal u-rings that looked as out of place in a luxury car as Paris Hilton at a Mensa meeting.
Cadillac Escalade – Ron Perry’s Opinion of Quality:
Our Cadillac Escalade’s biggest downfall was the now legendary low-quality plastics GM uses in its products, and the poor panel fit that abounds in many of its vehicles. Outside, the gaps and seams of the body panels showed uneven fitment. Inside, the leather was nice but the surrounding plastic brought down the look of the whole interior. Plus, the Escalade was full of ill-fitted panels. The A- and B-pillars had large, uneven gaps where they met the headliner, and the A-pillar covers were also loose and flipped outward at the corners. The panel under the steering wheel didn’t sit flush with the piece next to it, and the wobbly hinges on the center console were another issue that needed attention. It seems I write the same things over and over regarding GM quality; maybe someday things will improve.
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Kill the side vents, and you’d have a handsome machine in the 2007 Cadillac Escalade. Maybe a little over the top with the chrome, sure, and those cartoonish twenty-twos don’t benefit from a slammed suspension resulting in a look akin to a Hot Wheels car, but the ‘Slade is handsome nonetheless. The imposing grille, inspired by the Cadillac Sixteen concept car, is a hint of things to come from Cadillac, debuting next on the replacement for the CTS. The front lights and other details also fit nicely with the division’s now signature Art & Science design vocabulary, but aft of the A-pillars there’s precious little except for chrome trim to separate the Escalade from a Tahoe or Yukon. Maybe that’s why the logo on the rear door is the size of a Times Square billboard – THIS IS A CADILLAC!
Inside, the Escalade shares its low cowl dashboard mounting with the Tahoe and Yukon, but the detailing is different, from the materials to some of the switchgear. I particularly like the retro-style analog clock, the blue-and-white nighttime lighting, and that most of the buttons are marked with clear lettering, but given the amount of real estate on the dashboard, I cannot figure out why the controls are all crammed together, why the buttons are so small, why so many of them are exactly the same size, and why the climate system is located so low that operating it becomes a distraction while driving. While you’re peering around down there, check out the rear defroster button, which must be an eighth of an inch square inside a vehicle that measures 79 inches wide. Finally, what is up with auto-down front windows that don’t also auto themselves right up with the touch of a button? At this price, all four doors should feature automatic down/up – like an $18,000 VW Jetta.
One last thing: I know I’m gonna avoid parking next to any new Cadillac Escalades. When the driver’s door is opened, a chrome spear of trim extends beyond the door’s edge, which is gonna put a nice little ding in my car after some nitwit squeezes this rig into a “Compact” space and then tries to wriggle his 250-pound butt out from behind the driver’s seat. Consider yourself warned.
Cadillac Escalade – James Fabin’s Opinion of the Design:
Design and visual appearance is the one place where the Escalade is difficult to beat. From its very upscale front featuring a large eye-catching grille and triple-stacked lights to its clean rear, the Escalade looks good. The interior design is not as successful. The layout and location of buttons and switches is not user friendly, with some being difficult to decipher based on their cryptic markings. Many luxury vehicles feature an elegant analog clock in the dash which Cadillac attempted to copy with its own clock that looks anything but elegant. Overall, these are minor quirks that most Cadillac buyers will learn to accept.
Cadillac Escalade – Ron Perry’s Opinion of the Design:
There is a reason the Cadillac Escalade is so popular, it is a work of SUV art. The Escalade isn’t really that different in design from other SUVs, but there’s something unique enough about it to capture the attention of young and old, hip and square. Cadillac has really listened to the buyers of the Escalade and built it accordingly. What other company puts 22-inch rims on an SUV from the factory?
Design is really open to opinion and taste, but there are design issues that could help the Escalade project an image of higher quality. One issue that caught my eye is how the wheel well liners attempt to sit flush to the edge of the wheel openings. The thin plastic doesn’t stay flat and the warping results in a sloppy, rough edge that looks cheap. It would also be nice if pushing the buttons that tilt the seats forward would also lower them.
Under the hood I expected to see an engine bay reminiscent of the nice plastic covers found in a Mercedes, but what you get is a typical exposed engine with a flimsy, cheap half cover that might as well not be there. Maybe it’s a guy thing, but looks under the hood matter too. I would also like to see the giant Cadillac emblem and surrounding chrome reduced in size. It brings visions of rappers with giant gold chains and oversized medallions hanging from their necks to mind. A one-piece DVD system with the ability to load DVDs from the back seat and operate push buttons without the use of a remote would also be ideal. One other small design issue I didn’t get is the layout of the gauges. Why do you need the water temperature and fuel gauge dead center? I would rather have the speedometer and tachometer more prominent and the other gauges smaller and off to the side.
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As much as I can appreciate the vast improvement that this new Escalade represents over the old one, I see little point to this SUV outside of its so-yesterday bling factor and status as a fading pop-culture icon. California is frequently the source of automotive trends, and the Escalade gained legs a decade ago thanks to the entertainment industry’s rapid embracement of the truck. Though the 2007 Escalade generated plenty of attention wherever we drove it in the Los Angeles area, garnering both cheers and sneers, new 2007 Cadillac Escalades are advertised at a discount in local SoCal newspapers. That doesn’t bode well for what is essentially a fuel-quaffing, overweight, impractical 5,800-pound SUV that can carry four people in comfort, six adults in a pinch, and which offers virtually no space behind the third-row seat for any cargo save plastic bags of groceries, which have a tendency to dump out onto the ground as soon as the power liftgate is raised. The purchase of a 2007 Cadillac Escalade, which is in the process of trading its status as a symbol of success for a symbol of excess, is illogical and irresponsible. It might be a dandy luxury SUV, and it may not be any heavier, space inefficient, or environmentally reckless than several of its competitors, but it’s time for our “me, me, me” society to start thinking about “us, us, us,” dontcha think?
Cadillac Escalade – James Fabin’s Advice:
The Cadillac Escalade is one vehicle which is very easy to offer advice on because all that really matters I how good you’ll look behind the wheel. Who wouldn’t want to be seen cruising down Rodeo Drive in a new Escalade? People you pass would take notice and with three rows of comfortable leather seating you have plenty of room for friends. For those considering the Escalade, there is no match for the overall package. It’s all about the ‘Sclade!
Cadillac Escalade – Ron Perry’s Advice:
If you are going into the Cadillac Escalade with the knowledge that it loves gas, then sure, go for it. It is a comfortable, good-looking SUV that has a lot to offer. Just keep it locked up because it just made the most stolen vehicle list for the fourth straight year. That alone endorses its popularity.
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Price of Test Vehicle: $66,110 (including the $875 destination charge)
Engine Size and Type: 6.2-liter V8
Engine Horsepower: 403 at 5,700 rpm
Engine Torque: 417 lb.-ft. at 4,300 rpm
Transmission: Six-speed automatic
Curb weight, lbs.: 5,665
EPA Fuel Economy (city/highway): 13/19 mpg
Observed Fuel Economy: 11.9 mpg
Length: 202.5 inches
Width: 79.0 inches
Wheelbase: 116.0 inches
Height: 74.3 inches
Leg room (1st/2nd/3rd): 41.3/39.0/25.4 inches
Head room (1st/2nd/3rd): 40.3/38.5/38.2 inches
Max. Seating Capacity: Eight
Max. Cargo Volume: 108.9 cu.-ft.
Max. Payload: 1,435 lbs.
Max. Towing Capacity: 7,700 lbs.
Min. Ground Clearance: 9.0 inches
Competitors: Chrysler Aspen, GMC Yukon Denali, Infiniti QX56, Land Rover LR3, Lexus LX 470, Lincoln Navigator, Mercedes-Benz GL-Class, Porsche Cayenne, Toyota Land Cruiser
Photos by Ron Perry
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